Since antiquity humans have fashioned support devices to hold themselves up when they became sick or injured. Support device use dates back to 2830 BC. A carving on the entrance of an Egyptian tomb depicts a figure leaning on a crutch-like staff.
Crutch design has evolved from the basic "T" used by Tiny Tim in A Christmas Carol to lightweight aluminum braces with ice-gripping tips or energy-storing tips that function as shock absorbers and are slip resistant.
For lower-limb injuries such as a broken leg, broken ankle, sprained ankle, knee injuries, and other injuries, as well as after surgery on the leg, knee, ankle, or foot, crutches remain useful today to decrease discomfort, reduce recovery time, and assist walking. Often when you get a cast put on your leg or foot you will be required to use crutches for a period of time. Crutches may also be used by amputees, and people with other disabilities that make walking difficult.
A crutch must do two things: reduce weight load on one of your legs and broaden your support base to improve your balance and stability. The support also should assist upright movement and transmit sensory cues through the hands. A crutch allows people with paralysis or other disabilities the benefits of upright posture and lets them maneuver in places they cannot go with a wheelchair.
A crutch becomes necessary when a person cannot walk or walks with extreme difficulty. Any person with leg or foot pain or injury, weak muscles, or an unstable gait may benefit from using a crutch or crutches. Regaining upright body movement aids circulation, assists kidney and lung functions, and helps prevent calcium loss from your bones.
Crutches shift the force of upright movement from your legs to your upper body. You must have sufficient arm strength, balance, and coordination to use them effectively.
Before you begin using crutches, your doctor, nurse, or physical therapist will show you how to adjust the crutches so they are the right height for you. If a patient has never used a crutch, they should not do so without instructions and ideally, to be safe, a trained assistant. To begin walking with crutches, gradually shift your weight to your healthy leg. Move the crutches in front of you to a point at which you can maintain stability. For the swing movement, shift your weight from your healthy leg to your arms, swinging your body through the crutches as the crutches take up the weight. Plant your healthy leg at a point ahead, again maintaining stability, and shift your weight back to the leg. Then move the crutches forward to repeat the movement.
Studies have shown that your wrist receives from one to more than three times your body weight during the swing phase of walking with crutches -- a load the upper body was not designed to sustain.